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# Multiplication and Division

**Multiplication as Repeated Addition **

**Multiplication Using Groups**

**Multiplication Using Groups of Objects**

**Multiplication Using Arrays**

#### Division - Sharing into Equal Groups

**Division Using Repeated Subtraction**

**Division Using Arrays**

**Counting in 10s, 5s, 2s and 3s**

Being able to confidently count in 2s, 5s and 10s and 3s is an important skill that will help children to quickly recall the 2, 5, 10 times tables Multiplication and Division facts and when working with Fractions.

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**Multiplication and Division**

We learned that multiplication is repeating addition when we add the same number, the same amount, equal groups or lots many times.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8

Sometimes this can take a long time and the answer may not be correct (too many addition calculations). So we use multiplication instead.

4 x 2 = 8 This multiplication says that we add 4 equal groups/lots/amount of 2 (4 times 2/4 lots of 2, 4 groups of 2).

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1. Look at the calculation. Think about how many 'lots of' you have.

For example, 10 lots of 3 or 3 lots of 10.

2. If changing it around makes it easier then do this. The answer will be exactly the same.

3. Keep adding the first number the same amount of times as the second number.

4. The number on which you stop is the answer.

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1. Look at the calculation.

2. Look at the first number. Draw this amount circles.

3. Look at the second number. In each circle put this amount of crosses (or any other small image, like ticks).

4. Add up/count all the crosses/images that you have drawn.

5. The amount of crosses/images you have is the answer.

1. Read the question, think about it to understand what is it asking and so what you need to do.

2. Look at the first number.

3. Draw large circles for the first number.

4. Look at the second number.

5. Put this amount of objects in in each the large circles.

6. Count how many objects you have.

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**Using Arrays for Multiplication and Division**

1. Look at the calculation.

2. Draw the same amount of circles going down as the first number .

3. Draw the same amount of circles going across for each circle going down, as the second number.

4. Count the total amount of circles.

Best to count in steps of 2, 3, 5 or 10 (however many in each line going across).

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**Division**

**Division **and** Multiplication**

We learnt that division is the **inverse** (back to front) of multiplication. This means we can use the multiplication facts to find answers to division questions.

If we know that 4 x 2 = 8, then we also know that 8 ÷ 2 = 4 .

__Division by sharing__** **- When we divide an amount by a number we share this amount into given number of equal groups.

** Division by grouping** - We can also count in equal groups (the number by which we divide) to see how many will make the big amount we are dividing (started with).

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1. Look at the calculation.

2. Draw the amount of circles that you are dividing by, the second number in the division.

3. Start putting one dot in each circle in order.

4. Stop when you reach the number you that you are dividing, the first number in the division calculation.

5. Count how many dots are in each circle.

6. This is your answer.

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1. Read your calculation.

2. Draw a number line.

3. Add the number you are dividing (the first number in the division calculation) on the right hand side.

4. Keep taking away the number you are dividing by (the second number in the division calculation) until you get to 0.

5. Add the amount of hops you have done.

6. The amount of jumps will be your answer.

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1. Look at the calculation.

2. Draw circles for the number you are dividing by (the smaller number in the division calculation) in a line going down.

3. Keep drawing columns (in lines going down) of circles with each column having the same amount as the first.

4. While drawing the column of circles keep count of the total/all circles you are using for the columns.

4. Stop when you have the same number of circles as the number that is being divided (the largest number in the division).

5. Count to check that the columns are equal and have exactly the same amount of circles.

6. Now count to check that all rows are equal too.

7. Put a box around a row.

8. Count the circles in this row.

9. The circles you have counted will be your answer.

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**2, 3, 5, 10 Times Tables Songs**

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